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Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and male infertility in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

1 Research Scholar, Department of Physiology, Vinayaka Mission's Research Foundation, Salem, Tamilnadu, India
2 Associate Professor, Departments of Physiology, Vinayaka Mission's Medical College and Hospital, Karaikal, Puducherry, India
3 Deputy Dean & Professor, Department of Anatomy, VMKV Medical College and Hospital, Salem, Tamilnadu, India
4 Professor & Head, Department of Pharmacology, VMKV Medical College and Hospital, Salem, Tamilnadu, India

Correspondence Address:
K Ranjith Babu,
Vinayaka Mission's Research Foundation, Salem, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_167_22

Introduction: As per World Health Organization, Infertility is a condition which is characterized by not getting conceived with more than 1-year of unprotected sexual intercourse without usage of any contraceptive aids. Folate has a significant role in the metabolism of the cells, like nucleic acids synthesis, gene expression by means of remethylation of the homocysteine into methionine. In the males, deficiency of folate leads to reduced proliferation of the sperm cells. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase genes result in alterations of the methylations resulting pathological conditions being a potential risk factor for male infertility. Materials and MethodS: A total of 100 diabetic infertile males were selected as the study group and 100 nondiabetic fertile males were included as the control group. Blood samples were analyzed for the MTHFR polymorphisms. DNA extraction was done and the extract is subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification. The resultant is subjected to electrophoresis for MTHFR gene allele confirmation. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS Statistics 20 package. Chi-square test, odds ratio has been done and P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results: Genotype frequencies of MTHFR C677T, A1298C in all the subjects were analyzed for the Hardy–Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium. Mutant polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T, i.e., thymine-thymine and cytosine-thymine were increased significantly. Similarly, MTHFR A1298C mutant polymorphisms, i.e. adenine-cytosine, cytosine-cytosine were increased significantly in the infertile group than in the fertile group. Discussion: Mutations of both MTHFR C677T, A1298C are found to be linked with lowered enzyme activity. We found that the occurrence of mutant homozygous and mutant heterozygous genotypes was increased in a diabetic male infertile group when compared to nondiabetic fertile group. Hence, it can be concluded that presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR will increase the risk of infertility in diabetic male population.

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