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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 198-203

A comprehensive review of Trivanga bhasma (herbomineral trimetallic formulation)


Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, ITRA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission22-Sep-2021
Date of Decision16-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance04-Mar-2022
Date of Web Publication09-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Pravin Jawanjal
PhD Scholar, Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, ITRA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_108_21

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  Abstract 


BACKGROUND: Trivanga Bhasma, a herbomineral formulation prepared by incineration of Vanga (Tin), Naga (Lead), Yashada (zinc). In Rasa Kaumudi Trivanga bhasma is mentioned as Triloha bhasma.
AIM: The aim of the present study was analysis of various pharmaceutical methods, doses, indications, of Trivanga Bhasma mentioned in Ayurveda texts.
INTRODUCTION: Trivanga Bhasma is indicated in MutraRoga (disorders of urine), Madhumeha (Diabetes) and Vandhyatva (Infertility), Napunasakta (Impotency), Shaktivardhaka (Strength) Swetapradara (Leucorrhea).
METHODS: Ancient Ayurvedic classics included Rasatantrasara Evam Siddhaprayoga Sangraha, Ayurvedeeya Oushadi Gunadharma Shastra, Siddhayoga Sangraha, Rasa Kaumudi, Bhasma Vigyana, Rasa Raj Mahodadhi, and other available translations in various languages were viewed. Marana (incineration) method of Trivanga Bhasma mentioned in classics were collected and analyzed. A comprehensive review of Trivanga Bhasma has been attempted by searching of published literatures in various database including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Taylor and Francis, Google Scholar, and University Grants Commission care journals list.
DISCUSSION: In classical texts, fourteen methods of preparation of Trivanga Bhasma were found and in texts-Rasa Kaumudi-1, Rasayansara-2, SiddhaYoga Samgraha-1, Rasaraj Mahodadhi-1, Ayurvediya Aushadhi Guna Dharma Shastra-1, Rasatantra Sara Evam Siddha Prayoga Samgraha-2, Bhasma Vigyana-5, and Ayurvedic Formulary India-1 methods are mentioned. In these methods, 9 methods were Jarana followed by Putapaka, Jarana in 3 methods, Damaru Yantra Kramangi paka in 2 methods.
CONCLUSION: A total of 14 methods of Marana with 22 media are mentioned for Trivanga Bhasma.

Keywords: Ayurveda, Naga, Trivanga Bhasma, Vanga, Yashada


How to cite this article:
Jawanjal P, Choudhary S, Bedarkar P, Patgiri B J. A comprehensive review of Trivanga bhasma (herbomineral trimetallic formulation). BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2022;7:198-203

How to cite this URL:
Jawanjal P, Choudhary S, Bedarkar P, Patgiri B J. A comprehensive review of Trivanga bhasma (herbomineral trimetallic formulation). BLDE Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 28];7:198-203. Available from: https://www.bldeujournalhs.in/text.asp?2022/7/2/198/355843



Bhasma, an Ayurvedic dosage form, prepared by using complex procedures such as Shodhana (purification), Marana (designed cyclic incinerations), possesses broad-spectrum therapeutic utility in disease prevention and treatment. Metals; Vanga (Tin), Naga (Lead), and Yashada (Zinc); are used in therapeutics in the form of Bhasma for different duration[1] Bhasma is one of the dosage forms of Ayurvedic drugs prepared using metals and minerals along with herbs. Trivanga Bhasma is combination of three metals namely Vanga (Tin), Naga (Lead), Yashada (zinc) and it is indicated in Madhumeha (Diabetes) and MutraRoga (urinary disorders), Napunasakta (impotency), Vandhyatva (Infertility), Swetapradara (Leucorrhea), and as Shaktivardhaka (strength).[2],[3] In Rasa literature Naga, Vanga, and Yashada (Trivanga) are included in the group of Putiloha.[4] In 16th century A. D., it was first introduced in Rasa Kaumudi by the name of Triloha. The literature reveals various indigenous processing techniques, i.e., Shodhana, Jarana (heating and stirring), and Marana. However, in the 20th century, it became more popular in a large extent of Ayurvedic literature. Exprimental studies reported as Trivanga Bhasma showed no toxicity in all rats and their body weights remained constant before and after administration of formulations indicating no renal and gastrointestinal toxicity. The experimental study reported the antidiabetic activity of Trivanga Bhasma.[5] Trivanga Bhasma is safe at up to a dose level of 78 mg/kg in mice as No Observed Effect Level.[6] Analytical study reported as Trivanga Bhasma contains %Lead, %Tin, %Zinc, %Iron, and %Aluminum were found 24.44, 24.26, 24.40, 4.13, and 0.79, respectively.[7] The different pharmaceutical methods with different number of Puta and therapeutic indication of Trivanga Bhasma are mentioned in Rasa classics. Hence, in this article, efforts have been made to review the pharmaceutical methods of the Trivanga Bhasma which is mentioned in Ayurvedic literature.


  Methods Top


Ancient Ayurvedic classics included Rasatantrasara Evam Siddhaprayoga Sangraha, Ayurvedeeya Oushadi Gunadharma Shastra, Siddhayoga Sangraha, Rasa Kaumudi, Bhasma Vigyana, Rasa Raj Mahodadhi, and other available translations in various languages were viewed. Marana (incineration) method of Trivanga Bhasma mentioned in classics was collected and analyzed. Type of Marana (incineration) method of Trivanga Bhasma was classified and represented as in flow diagram. Various media used for Marana of Trivanga Bhasma and various stick used for Jarana of Trivanga Bhasma were mentioned. A comprehensive review of Trivanga Bhasma has been attempted by searching of published literatures in various database included Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Taylor and Francis, Google Scholar, and University Grants Commission care journals list. Published articles in only the English language were included in the study. Classical terms have been thoroughly explained on the basis of the classical Ayurvedic texts in Samskrit. MeSH terms “Marana,”Jarana,”Trivanga Bhasma,” “Vanga,” “Naga,” and “Yashada” were used for the study. Numbers of Puta in Marana, indication and pharmaco-therapeutics of ingredients of Trivanga Bhasma from Ayurvedic classics were considered.

The botanical name is mentioned as per the plant list.[8] English equivalent terms are mentioned for Ayurvedic term as per Ayush Namaste portal.[9]


  Results Top


In classical texts, fourteen methods of preparation of Trivanga Bhasma were found. These methods were detailed interpreted in the [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4] and [Table 5]
Table 1: Marana (incineration) method of Trivanga Bhasma mentioned in classics

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Table 2: Various media used for Marana of Trivanga Bhasma

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Table 3: Various stick used for Jarana of Trivanga Bhasma

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Table 4: Indication of Trivanga Bhasma

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Table 5: Numbers of Puta in Marana method of Trivanga Bhasma mentioned in classics

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  Discussion Top


Vanga (Tin), Naga (Lead), Yashada (zinc) were subjected for Samanya Shodhana, Vishesha Shodhana, Jarana, Marana in Bhasma preparation. As a result of different stages of processing techniques Shodhana, Jarana, and Marana, the particle size reduces significantly, which may facilitate absorption and assimilation of the Bhasma into system of the body.[10] In the Trivanga Bhasma preparation Samanya Shodhana, Jarana procedure in 3 methods, Jarana followed by Putapaka in 9 methods, Damaru Yantra Kramangi paka in 2 methods were found [Table 1] and [Diagram 1]. In classical texts, 14 methods of preparation of Trivanga Bhasma were found. In texts-Rasa Kaumudi-1, Rasayansara-2, SiddhaYoga Samgraha-1, Rasaraj Mahodadhi-1, Ayurvediya Aushadhi Guna Dharma Shastra-1, Rasatantra Sara Evam Siddha Prayoga Samgraha-2, Bhasma Vigyana-5, Ayurvedic Formulary India-1 methods are mentioned. Samanya Shodhana, (general purification) Vishesha Shodhana (special purification) and Marana of Naga is mentioned in various texts 24, 26, and 97 respectively.[11] Samanya Shodhana, Vishesha Shodhana and Marana of methods of Vanga is mentioned in various texts were 4, 12, and 44 respectivly.[12] Shodhana of Yashada is carried out in two ways-Samanya Shodhana and Vishesha Shodhana. But certain authors have suggested Samanya Shodhana only. Different media are used for Shodhana of Yashada. While scrutinizing the classics of Rasashastra, it is observed that totally 20 media are used for Shodhana of Yashada. Nearly 50 different methods for Shodhana of Yashada are found mentioned in various textbooks of Rasashastra. Textbook “Bhasma Vignyaniyam” has compiled 23 methods for preparing Yashada Bhasma. Besides these methods, it is advised to follow the procedures advised for Naga, Vanga, Rasaka and Pushpanjana for Yashada in classics.[13] As per Rasa Kaumudi, the pharmaceutical procedure of Trivanga bhasma is described as Triloha Bhasma and also mentioned the Jarana (roasting) of Naga, Vanga, and Rasaka (Zinc carbonate) with Rajavriksha (Cassia fistula L.) Twaka (Stem bark) Churna (powder). In this method for stirring Pipal (Ficus religiosa Linn.) Danda (stick) or Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) Danda (Stick) is used.[14]



In Rasayanasara, Kupipakwa (specific method, medicine is prepared in a glass bottle, on a specific heating pattern) method was mentioned as an amalgamation of Naga, Vanga and Yashada with Parada (Mercury), trituration with Gandhaka (Sulfur) Hartala (Orpiment) and Nimbu rasa (Citrus indica Yu. Tanaka juice) and then subjected for Kupipakwa.[15]

In Rasa Tantra Sara evum Siddha Prayog Sangraha, two different pharmaceutical methods of preparations of Trivanga Bhasma are mentioned through Suddha Naga, Vanga, and Yashada along with Jarana and Marana with some herbal drugs like Haridra Churna, (Curcuma longa L.) Pippala Twaka Churna, Bhanga Churna, Chincha Twaka Churna, Kumari Swarasa.(Aloe vera juice) and Vata Jata Kwatha (Ficus Bengalensis LINN. decoction) along with this therapeutic dose, indications, and Anupana are also mentioned.[16]

In Siddha Yoga Sangraha, the powders of Bhanga (Cannabis sativa L.) and Ahiphena (Papaver somniferum L.) Posta were used for Jarana and stirred with Loha Darvi (iron stirrer). The Jarita Trivanga Bhasma is ground in Kumari Swarasa for 3 h. Flat Chakrika is prepared and dried well. These Chakrika are kept in Sharava Samputa and Sandhi Bandha is made and placed in Ardha Gajputa for calcination. This process is repeated seven times. The color of Bhasma will be pale yellow. Dose of Trivanga Bhasma is 1 Ratti (125 mg).[17]

In Bhasma Vigyana, different pharmaceutical processes are described in some Ayurveda, Hindi, and Urdu literature. The pharmaceutical processing of Trivanga Bhasma has been described in this text almost the same but using different Jarana drugs and Marana drugs., In this text, five methods are described for the preparation of Trivanga Bhasma. The first method was the same as described in Siddha Yoga Sangraha. In the second method, The Shodhita Trivanga (Naga, Vanga, and Yashada in equal quantities) is kept in an iron pan and heated. While it is melting, powders of Sora (Potassium Nitrate) 3 times of Trivanga Bhasma sprinkled in small quantities and stirred with Loha Darvi. This process is continued until the melted Trivanga is reduced to powder form. The Jarita Trivanga Bhasma is ground in Kumari Swarasa for three Bhavana (levigation), Arka Dugdha for three Bhavana, and Dadhi (curd) for three Bhavana. In these ways, the number of Puta was nine for Marana of Trivanga Bhasma.

In the third method, Sharkara (Sugar) was used 20 times of Trivanga Bhasma for Jarana then heated for 3–4 h. After a self-cooling wash with water in Kharala.

In the fourth method, Arka Churna, Dhatura Churna Datura metel (Linn.), Bhanga Churna, Haridra Churna are used for Jarana. In Marana, Kumari Swarasa, Dahi, Dhatura, Madya are used for Bhavana and 4 number of Puta are used. In fifth method Suvarna Warka (Gold) 1/20 part of Trivanga Bhasma, Parada 1/20part of Trivanga Bhasma used for Jarana and Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) Danda (stick) used for stirring during Jarana (heating and stirring), method. In Marana Jarita Trivanga triturated with Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica L.), Bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.) Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz.), Trikatu (equal quantities of Piper longum L. Piper nigrum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe), Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris L). Kwatha used for Bhavana and subjected for calcination, after that further Trivanga triturated with Arka which prepared by ¼ part of Lal Kasis (ammonium dichromet) mixed with Bhanga Patra, Arka Dugdha (Calotropis gigantea Linn. milk) put in distillation apparatus. Triturated Trivanga subjected for Puta. In these ways 101 Bhavana and Puta were used for the preparation of Trivanga Bhasma.[18] Rasa Raj Mahodadhi mentioned first time advised to use copper utensils for Jarana process and completed by Bilwa Patra Swarasa.[19] In Ayurvedic Formulary India,[20] pharmaceutical procedure of Trivanga Bhasma is mentioned as per Siddha Yoga Samgraha. As per Ayurvediya Aushadhi Guna Dharma Shastra Ashwattha Twaka Choorna and Chincha Twaka Choorna were used for Jarana and Haridra Kwatha and Kumari Swarasa were used for Marana.[21] Different types of media are used in various pharmaceutical methods of Trivanga Bhasma. Total 14 methods of Marana with 22 number of media among which Kumari Swarasa and Bhanga Swarasa are the highest mentioned for Trivanga Bhasma [Table 2]. Various sticks are used for Jarana of Trivanga Bhasma. Loha stick and Nimba stick are the highest mentioned for Jarana process [Table 3].

Trivanga Bhasma possess Deepana, Balya, Medohara, Virshya, and Tridoshashmana properties Trivanga Bhasma indicated mainly in Diabetes [Table 4]. The Media used in the preparation of Trivanga Bhasma among which Kumari, Bhanga, Ashwattha, Vata, Chincha, Bilva, Triphala, Haridra, Gokshura, Dhatura, Arka, possess antidiabetic property[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32] which may be possible role as ingredient in Trivanga Bhasma. The Nimba stick used for Jarana also possesses antidiabetic activity.[33] In 14 method, the number of Puta varies from 4 to 101 as per different texts [Table 5]. The Rasa, Virya, Vipaka of Trivanga Bhasma were not found any texts [Table 6].
Table 6: Pharmaco-therapeutics of ingredients of Trivanga Bhasma

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  Conclusion Top


Trivanga Bhasma is mentioned for first time as “Triloha” in text “Rasa Kaumudi” later “Rasayansara” and “Siddha Yoga Samgraha” enlisted it as Trivanga Bhasma. It is indicated in Tridosha ailments and possess Deepana, Balya, Medohara, Virshya properties. Total 14 methods of Marana with 22 number of media among which Kumari Swarasa and Bhanga Swarasa are highest mentioned for Trivanga Bhasma. The number of Puta varies from 4 to 101 as per different methods were mentioned in texts. Trivanga Bhasma is proved as antidiabetic in animal studies.

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Conflicts of interest

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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