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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 82-88

Impact of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary habits and age on body composition and bone mineral density of office workers

1 Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi, India
2 Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre, Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Som Nath Singh
Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Defence Organisation, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi - 110 054
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_8_21

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INTRODUCTION: Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) is important for skeletal health. Several factors such as age, gender, dietary habits, exposure to sunlight, lifestyle, and bodyweight influence BMD directly or indirectly. People living in metropolitan cities are at risk of low BMD due to low Vitamin D status and less physical activity. This study aimed to evaluate BMD status of office workers and also establish a correlation between body composition and BMD with different age groups and dietary habits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was carried out on 175 participants with 124 males and 51 females. Body composition was determined using bioelectrical impedance and BMD measurements were made using peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: A strong and positive correlation was observed between body composition and BMD. Fat-free mass (FFM) has a more significant correlation than fat Mass with BMD. Handgrip strength was significantly higher in the right forearm (RF) of nonvegetarians. When compared with the Indian reference range, 20% of males and 23.5% of females had low BMD at the measurement site, ultradistal forearm. Both male and female participants below 30 years of age had higher BMD compared to participants above 30 years of age. CONCLUSION: It was observed that there were no statistically significant differences in BMD of vegetarians and nonvegetarians. It was also seen that the bone density decreases while the age increases. It may be due to inadequate nutrition, poor lifestyle, physical inactivity, and many more. Bone health is a major public concern and should be taken seriously where osteoporosis and fracture risks are considered.

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