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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 51-55

Standard manufacturing procedure of Bhallataka Kshara (Herbo-mineral prepation)


1 Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, IPGT&RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Rasa Shastra, RA Podar Ayurvedic Medical College, Worli Mumbai, India

Date of Submission22-Jan-2021
Date of Decision17-Mar-2021
Date of Acceptance29-May-2021
Date of Web Publication27-Jun-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pravin Jawanjal
PhD Scholar, Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, IPGT&RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_12_21

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  Abstract 


INTRODUCTION: Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) Kshara is mentioned in Charaka Samhita Grahani Chikista Adhyaya. It is indicated in Hridaroga (heart diseases), Pandu (anemia), Grahani dosha (bowl disorder), and Gulma (abdominal distention).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bhallataka Kshara is prepared by Putapaka (incineration) method.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The method of preparation needs a strong heat (Prakhar agni), and hence, a temperature of 650°C was maintained.
CONCLUSION: There is a 69.37% of loss in terms of yield in the preparation of Bhallataka Kshara in the electrical muffle furnace mentioned at 650°C.

Keywords: Bhallataka, Charaka Samhita, Kshara


How to cite this article:
Jawanjal P, Patgiri B, Savrikar S S. Standard manufacturing procedure of Bhallataka Kshara (Herbo-mineral prepation). BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2022;7:51-5

How to cite this URL:
Jawanjal P, Patgiri B, Savrikar S S. Standard manufacturing procedure of Bhallataka Kshara (Herbo-mineral prepation). BLDE Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 15];7:51-5. Available from: https://www.bldeujournalhs.in/text.asp?2022/7/1/51/348282



Ayurveda utilizes different dosage forms of herbs and minerals in therapeutics. Kshara is one among such dosage forms.[1] Charaka described two methods of preparation of Kshara as Bahir Parimarjana (for external use only) and Antah Parimarjaniya (which was prepared by Putapaka).[2] Bhallataka Kshara is described in Charaka Samhita Grahani Chikista Adhyaya. It is indicated in Hridaroga (heart diseases), Pandu (anemia), Grahani dosha (bowl disorder), and Gulma (abdominal distention). Bhallataka is used as an ingredient in many formulations of Ayurveda for the management of several diseases.[3] Kshara are prepared from herbal drug ashes in the form of powder, solutions, or crystals.[4] Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) Kshara is described in Charaka Samhita Grahani Chikista Adhyaya. Bhallataka Kshara consists of ten ingredients, i.e. Bhallataka fruits, powder of Trikatu (equal quantities of Piper longum L., Piper nigrum L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe), Triphala (Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellerica, and Terminalia chebula), and Trilavana as namely Saindhava (rock salt) lavana, Suarchala (potassium nitrate) lavana, and Bida (black Salt) lavana. It is indicated in Hridaroga (heart diseases), Pandu (anemia), Grahani dosha (bowl disorder), Gulma (abdominal distention), Udavarta (flatulence), and Shula (abdominal pain); it is prepared by Antardhum Putapaka (incineration) method.[5] It is prepared by the Putapaka method. In the present study, a standard manufacturing procedure is developed for Bhallataka Kshara. The Standard Manufacturing Procedure for Bhallataka Kshara is not reported so far. Hence, the present topic is selected for the study.


  Materials and Methods Top


Equipment

Electrical muffle furnace (EMF), wet grinder of 2 kg capacity, weighing machine, measuring cylinder, mud smeared clothes, stainless steel vessel, plastic sheet, earthen saucers.
Figure 1: Bhallataka

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Figure 2: Trikatu Churna

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Figure 3: Triphala Churna

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Figure 4: Bids Lavana

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Figure 5: Saindhava lavana

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Figure 6: Suarchala lavana

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Raw drugs collection

Bhallataka fruits, Trikatu, Triphala, Romaka lavana Kshara, and Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica Linn.) powder were used as ingredients and were procured from the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, ITRA, Jamnagar. The equipment used for the procedure was Multani Mitti, earthen pot, and weighing balance. EMF is used for Puta.
Figure 7: Bhallataka selection criteria

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Figure 8: Selected Bhallataka

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Figure 9: Sharavasam Puta

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Figure 10: Muffle furnace

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Figure 11: After Putapaka process

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Figure 12: After crushing final product

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Preparation of Bida lavana

The method explained in Rasa tarangini was adopted for the preparation of Vida lavana.[6] Romaka lavana and Amalaki (E. officinalis L.) Churna were taken for preparation in the amount of 245 g and 7 g, respectively (as a ratio of 35:1), and mixed. Initially, one-fourth Churna was taken It was taken in Sharava (an earthen pot) and another Sharava was covered on it. The joint between the Sharava was sealed with a layer of Multani Mitti (mud)-smeared cloth. After drying, the Sharava was covered with layers of Kappada Mitti (mud smeared cloth). After drying the Kappada Mitti, another layer of Kappada Mitti was applied. This Sharavasam Puta was placed in a muffle furnace. The temperature was maintained at 600°C for 2 h. After self-cooling, the remaining three-fourth Churna was added and the same procedure was adopted. The temperature was maintained at 600°C, and it was heated for 6 h.

Preparation of Bhallataka Kshara

Matured fruits of Bhallataka were procured from the Pharmacy. Fruits of Bhallataka were dried in sunlight for 15 days. Bhallataka fruits which were sunk in the water; those were selected for the preparation of Bhallataka Kshara.[7] Bhallataka fruits, powder of Trikatu (equal quantities of P. longum L. P. nigrum L., and Z. officinale Roscoe. Triphala (E. officinalis, T. bellerica, and T. chebula), and Trilavana were mixed [Table 1]. It was kept in an earthen saucer and subjected to Putapaka (incineration). It was kept in a muffle furnace on 650°C for 6 h and allowed to self-cool; Bhallataka Kshara was collected.
Table 1: Name of ingredient for the preparation of Bhallataka Kshara [Figure 1],[Figure 2],[Figure 3],[Figure 4],[Figure 5],[Figure 6],[Figure 7],[Figure 8]

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  Discussion Top


Good manufacturing practice is crucial in the system of Ayurveda. Most of the drugs used in ayurvedic treatment are of herbomineral medicines. The formulations are also either herbomineral drugs or herbal drug. The substances of mineral and herbal origin cannot be used in their crude form and essential appropriate method to convert them into suitable form for internal administration.[8] Kshara is any acrid substance. The Kshara is a substance that causes decaying, perishing, cutting, falling, or destruction of diseased skin. Kshara is produced by drugs possessing hot temperament; as result, it is pungent in taste and nature. Kshara is a product of combination of multiple drug ingredients. Hence, it has a pacifying effect on all the three Doshas.[9] Bhallataka Kshara is indicated in heart diseases, anemia, bowl disorder, and abdominal distention. An average loss of 20% in terms of yield was found in the preparation of Bida lavana [Table 2]. There was an average weight loss of 69.37% in the preparation of Bhallataka Kshara [Table 3]. The method of preparation requires a strong heat; hence, a temperature of 650°C was maintained for the preparation method. The time duration of 3.35 h was required to reach up to 650°C and to self-cool for 42 h [Table 4] and [Chart 1]. The color of Bhallataka Kshara was black and salty in taste due to Lavana as ingredients.
Table 2: Preparation of Bida lavana

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Table 3: Monitoring of yield of Bhallataka kshara [Figure 9],[Figure 10],[Figure 11],[Figure 12]

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Table 4: Time-temperature pattern during Bhallataka Kshara preparation [Chart 1]

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  Conclusion Top


There is 69.37% of weight loss in the preparation of Bhallataka Kshara in the EMF mentioned at 650°C. The current data on pharmaceutical profile of Bhallataka Kshara may be considered as standard in further standardization for future studies.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Jadav HR, Galib R, Prajapati PK. Pharmaceutical standardization of Apamarga kshara. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2015;6:290-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita. In: Sharma PV, editor. Sutra Sthana. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2014. p. 73-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Llanchezhian R, Joseph CR, Rabinarayan A. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit. Ayu 2012;33:270-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
4.
Yadav S, Sharma K and Kaur N: Characterisation of Narikela lavana. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2017;8:2200-4.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Agnivesha A, Samhita C. In: Sharma P, editor. Chaukhamba Orientalia. Ch. 15, Ver. 178. Varanasi: Chikistasthana Sthana; 2014. p. 299.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Sharma Sadananda Rasa Tarangini. Shastri K, editor. Traranga. Ch. 14. Varanasi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2000. p. 354.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Panday S, Chunrkar KC, Nighantu B. Varanasi: Chuakhamba Bharati Acadamy; 1999. p. 138-41.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sarkar PK, Das S, Prajapati PK. Ancient concept of metal pharmacology based on Ayurvedic literature. Anc Sci Life 2010;29:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Sharangdhara A, Samhita S. In: Prof Savrikar S, editor. Madhymakhanda. 1st ed., Vol. 2, Ch. 11. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanksrit Pratishthan; 2020. p. 530-1.  Back to cited text no. 9
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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