|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 27-34
Exploring potential of Kushmanda Avaleha in respiratory illness – A comprehensive review
Sheetal Sharma, Shreshtha Kaushik, Pramod Yadav, Galib Ruknuddin, Pradeep K Prajapati
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India
|Date of Submission||28-Jul-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||19-Nov-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||27-Jun-2022|
Dr. Sheetal Sharma
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, All India Institute of Ayurveda, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi - 110 076
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Respiratory ailments represent over 10% of all disability-adjusted life-years, a statistic that reflects the measure of active and productive life lost owing to a condition. A large number of Confections (Avaleha) have been recommended in various authoritative treatises by ancient seers for different respiratory disorders. Kushmanda Avaleha is one such multi-ingredient Ayurvedic formulation, which is advocated for the first time in Ashtanga Sangraha for Cough, Hiccups, Fever, Dyspnea, etc. Its chief constituent is Benincasa hispida Thumb. It has also been included in the Essential drug list published by the Ministry of AYUSH. Thus, this article is emphasized on compiling and exploring various classical references as well as reported current literature in various scientific journals and online databases about the therapeutic potential of Kushmanda Avaleha as well as its ingredients with special reference to respiratory illness. All the information has been placed here in comprehensive manner. Moreover, a number of studies have also been conducted and published which established the efficacy of its all ingredients in diverse respiratory pathologies through manifold mechanisms such as Bronchodilator, Anti-tussive, Mucolytic, etc. Therefore, on meticulous appraisal, it can be inferred that Kushmanda Avaleha is a complete care and an effective medication for various respiratory disorders.
Keywords: Avaleha, Benincasa hispida, Bronchitis, Kushmanda, Respiratory disorders
|How to cite this article:|
Sharma S, Kaushik S, Yadav P, Ruknuddin G, Prajapati PK. Exploring potential of Kushmanda Avaleha in respiratory illness – A comprehensive review. BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2022;7:27-34
|How to cite this URL:|
Sharma S, Kaushik S, Yadav P, Ruknuddin G, Prajapati PK. Exploring potential of Kushmanda Avaleha in respiratory illness – A comprehensive review. BLDE Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 14];7:27-34. Available from: https://www.bldeujournalhs.in/text.asp?2022/7/1/27/348280
Ayurveda being a holistic science of life imbibes within itself a couple of classical doctrines, i. e., Maintenance of healthy state of healthy individuals (Swasthasya Swasthasya Rakshanam) and Alleviation of ailments of diseased personnel (Aaturasya Vikaaraprashanam). To attain the twain doctrines, numerous medicinal preparations have been explicated in various traditional compendiums. The basic therapeutic components have been termed as Five Fundamental Preparations (Panchvidha Kashaya Kalpana). However, these primary preparations have several drawbacks such as less palatability, shorter shelf life, prepared freshly each time, etc. Hence, secondary formulations were developed to prevail over these limitations, and sometimes, it provides better results too. Avaleha Kalpana is one of such popular formulations, semisolid in consistency and is prepared by using herbal medicinal drugs and food articles including sugar, ghee, honey, etc. There are 13 avaleha possessing Rasayana attributes are mentioned in Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. In addition, 32, 07, and 20 Confection (Avaleha) are laid down in Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part-1, Part-2 and Part-3, respectively, which can be further modified into other dosage forms such as granular preparations (khanda), lickable preparation (lehya) which are nutrient to body and mind with adapto-immuno-neuro-endocrine-modulator property (Rasayana), paka, confection, etc., based on its consistency.
Respiratory illness particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), Asthma, tuberculosis imposes a huge global health impact. Altogether, above 1 billion people suffer from either acute or chronic respiratory conditions. The stark truth is that 4 million people per year die prematurely from chronic respiratory disease. A large number of Avaleha have been recommended by ancient seers for various respiratory ailments. The present article is intended to throw light on one important Avaleha preparation i.e., Kushmanda Avaleha (hereafter referred as KA). It is a multi-ingredient Ayurvedic formulation advocated for the first time in Ashtanga Sangraha for Cough (Kasa), Hiccups (Hikka), Fever (Jwara) Dyspnea (Swasha), Bleeding disorders (Raktapitta), Wound (Kshata), Emaciation (Kshaya), useful in thorax injury (Urasandhanajananam), promote intellect and memory (medhasmriti), improves physical strength (bala pradama). Its chief constituent is Benincasa hispida Thumb (Kushmanda) which has been accounted in detail in Ayurvedic Materia Medica. It is also named as Shweta petha, ash gourd, white pumpkin, winter melon, etc. In the taxonomic classification, Benincasa hispida belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Under this family, approximately 30 varieties of pumpkins have been identified and categorized namely Cucurbita pepo, C. maxima, C. moschata. Kushmanda (Benincasa hispida Thumb.) is widely utilized vegetable crop particularly in Asian communities for both nutritional and therapeutic benefits. Its fruits have long been used as a diuretic (Mutravirechana), laxative (Malasodhaka) aphrodisiac (Vrisya), cardiotonic (Hridya) and in treatment for several respiratory, urinary, gastrointestinal ailments, etc.,, A number of studies have been conducted and published which established the efficacy of its all ingredients in diverse respiratory diseases. It has also been included in the Essential drug list published by the Ministry of AYUSH. Considering these facts, this article is emphasized on compiling and exploring various classical references as well as reported current literature about therapeutic potential of Kushmanda Avaleha as well as its ingredients with special reference to respiratory illness.
| Methods for Literature Search|| |
Extensive literature search pertaining to Kushmanda avaleha was performed through available classical treatises such as Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Astanga Hridaya, Yogratnakara, etc., along with official standards namely, Ayurvedic Formulary of India and Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Apart, relevant researches published in various scientific journals and online databases were also screened to gain contemporary insights about the benefit of this formulation primarily in respiratory disorders. All the information has been placed here in comprehensive manner.
| Results of Literature Search|| |
In-depth meticulous appraisal of classical authoritative texts spotted that Kushmanda Avaleha has been documented in around 20 treatises under 12 different nomenclatures stated as Kushmanda Rasayana,, Kushmandaka Rasayana, Khanda kushmandaka,,,, Khanda Kushmanda, Khandakushmanda,, Khandakushmandakavaleha, Kushmanda avaleha,,,,,,, Kushmanda Khanda,, Brihat Kushmanda avaleha, Kushmanda Paka Brihat, Kushmanda Paka Mahan. It is addressed as Kusmandaka Rasayana in AFI and API. The consolidated outlook of its integral constituents along with their quantity and part used is depicted in [Table 1]. Majority of the classical compendiums endorse this opinion whereas few of them recommended variations in either the number of components or their amount. Those additional peculiarities can be elucidated in [Table 2].
|Table 1: Ingredients of Kushmanda Avaleha along with their part used and quantity|
Click here to view
The variable used by Ayurveda to explicate the pharmacological properties of medicine is Five factors of Substance (Rasapanchaka) which include Taste (Rasa), Properties (Guna), Potency (Virya), Rasa after digestion and metabolism (Vipaka), specific pharmacological effect (Prabhaba). Conventional molecular model doesn't correspond with the ayurvedic postulates. Hence, the Rasapanchaka of its all ingredients is represented in [Table 3] to comprehend the pharmacokinetics of KA. Majority of its constituents are Sweet (Madhura), Pungent (Katu) Rasa, Light (Laghu), Dry (Ruksha) Guna, Hot (Ushna) Virya, and Sweet (Madhura) Vipaka. Looking over the accessible quotations pertaining to KA, it is also divulged that KA has been chiefly advocated for a lot of respiratory and bleeding disorders considering Kasa, Shwasa, Kshaya, Hikka, Raktapitta, Kshata, etc. Apart, it has been indicated as a potent nutrient taking terms namely, Providing strength (balakrita), Heaviness (brimhana), Aphrodisiac (vrishya), rasayana into account. Furthermore, it has also been prescribed for various other gastrointestinal and psychological disorders. All the therapeutic attributes of KA are enlisted in [Table 4]. It is advised to administer it orally in strength starting from 5 gm to 48 gm by different seers but, has been prescribed in dosage of 6–12 g along with cow milk or water as an adjuvant as per official standards. In addition, Ayurveda Sara Sangraha and Harita Samhita mentioned goat milk and honey also as its vehicle, respectively.
|Table 4: Therapeutic attributes of Kushmanda avaleha as per different classics|
Click here to view
| Compilation of Published Researches|| |
On exploring various scientific journals and online databases, a small number of studies have been traced. Only three clinical trials and two analytical studies in apropos of KA have been found till date. A prospective, open-label multicentric study with Kushmandaka Rasayana in the strength of 10 g BD daily with lukewarm water on 193 patients of chronic bronchitis was carried out in three peripheral centers of the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS). Statistically, significant improvement was observed in clinical symptoms, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and clinical COPD questionnaire without any adverse drug reactions/adverse events. Another clinical trial was conducted to manage Hyperacidity (Amlapitta) in 25 patients in a dosage of 25 gm BD along with lukewarm milk (Sukhoshna Dugdha) in which results were found statistically significant. One more Exploratory Clinical Trial to Evaluate Efficacy of Kushmanda kalpa for weight gain in 100 Malnourished Children (as per IAP classification of malnutrition) from various Aanganwadis has been reported.. In this study, Kushmanda kalpa was found effective in improving physical strength (balya) in Malnourished children than regular standard diet in Aanganwadi. After the therapy of three months, weight of children has been significantly increased in the trial group than the control group. The research work done pertaining to the evaluation of its nutritive value stated that 100 gm KA contains 4.44% of fats, 1.05% of proteins, 82.10% of carbohydrates, 60 mg of sodium and 11 mg of zinc which provides 372 Kcals energy to the body. Besides, its pharmaceutico-analytical profile has also been generated in research. Moreover, numerous current researches substantiate the efficacy of its ingredients in copious respiratory ailments through manifold mechanisms such as Bronchodilator, Anti-tussive, Mucolytic, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-allergic, etc., which are placed in [Table 5].
| Discussion|| |
Respiratory ailments represent over 10% of all disability-adjusted life-years, a statistic that reflects the measure of active and productive life lost owing to a condition. Environmental allergens, Hereditary predisposition, indoor and outdoor air pollution, lower respiratory tract infection in childhood, airway microbiome composition, nutritional variables, and abnormal immunological responses may contribute to it. Furthermore, Asthma affects up to 334 million people globally and its incidence has been rising for the past three decades. It is responsible for 489,000 fatalities per year or more than 1300 deaths per day. There is a description of the disease itself becoming causative factor for some other disease (Nidanarthaka roga) in our ancient classical texts. It states-if Cough (Kasa) is not treated within certain time, then it will further lead to other diseases sequentially such as Cough (Kasa) to Bronchial Asthma (shwasa), Bronchial Asthma to Debility (kshaya roga), Debility to Vomiting (cchardi), Vomiting to Change in voice (swarabhedha) which eventually leads to Coryza (pratishaya). Hence, all these disorders are interlinked, caused by ignorance and owing to not treating them in meantime.
Avaleha is semi-solid dosage form, that have a longer shelf-life than primary dosage forms and is suitable for all three age groups, i.e., children (Bala), young (Yuva), and old (Vriddha). In total, ten different methods for the preparation of avaleha including both with heat (Saagni) and without heat (Niragni) have been documented in our classical texts. The fundamental components of this dosage form comprise liquid substance (Drava Dravya), sweet substance (Madhura Dravya), condiments (Prakshepa Dravya), and paste of drugs (Kalka Dravya). Kushmanda Avaleha is one such wonderful avaleha possessing Brimhana attribute which is extremely useful in treating respiratory ailments. The major ingredients of Kushmanda Avaleha are Sweet Substances (Madhura dravya) namely, Kushmanda and Khanda. Madhura rasa masks the Tikta, Katu, Kashaya taste of the drug rendering it pleasant and more palatable. It also nourishes all tissues (Dhatus) as well as immunity (Oja). Moreover, high percentage of sugar in the medicament along with licking mode of administration facilitate oral absorption, bring about the soothing effect in the throat, mitigating local irritation. Apart, Ghee (Ghrita) possess the virtues of Digestive (Agnidipana), Provides strength (Balakara), Aphrodiasic (Vrishya), etc. It alleviates vata as well as pitta. In addition, Prakshepa Dravyas set out distinct characters to the formulation. They all own an aroma thus act as flavoring agents too and boost the acceptability of the product. Furthermore, Trikatu carry an active alkaloid i.e., piperine which accelerates the procedure of metabolism through rapid absorption of nutrients,, Therefore act as bioavailability and bioefficacy enhancer of various phytoconstituents. Honey is commended as the best catalyst (Yogavahi), i.e., any drug taken along with it will take over the therapeutic traits of the added drug. All these properties along with published facts about each constituent [Table 5] of Kushmanda Avaleha might aid in incepting possible mechanisms or its pharmacodynamics regarding respiratory care.
| Conclusion|| |
This article provides synoptic review of a polyherbal formulation, Kushmanda Avaleha and its constituents pertaining to variation in their quantities along with various pharmacological properties and therapeutic attributes focussing on respiratory ailments chiefly. Looking into the literature available in various classics as well as scientific journals, it can be inferred that, Kushmanda Avaleha is a complete care and an effective medication for various respiratory disorders.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Acharya Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita of Acharya Charaka by Dridhabala, edited by Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji. Sutra Sthana. 72nd
ed., Ch. 4., Verse 7. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2014. p. 67.
Sharangdhar, Madhyam Khanda 8/1-3 Sharangdhar Samhita Commentary with Dipika and Gudhartha Dipika Commentary. 4th
ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientelia; 2000. p. 206.
Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine & Homeopathy. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part. 1. New Delhi: Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine & Homeopathy; 2003. p. 31-2.
Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine & Homeopathy. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part. 2. New Delhi: Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine & Homeopathy; 2000. p. 47.
Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine & Homeopathy. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part. 3. New Delhi: Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine & Homeopathy; 2003. p. 41-2.
GBD, Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, allcause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 2016;388:1459-544.
Gupta A, Prajapati PK. Effect of different Avaleha in the management of Tamaka Shwasa (Bronchial Asthma). Ayu 2011;32:427.
Acharya Vagbhata, Astanga Samgraha, English Translation by Prof. K.R. Srikantha Murthy, Chikitsha Sthana. Vol. 2., Ch. 5., Ver. 64-65. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; Reprint 2016. p. 317.
Bhavamishra Bhavaprakasha, Commentary by K.C. Chunekar, Edited by Dr. G.S. Pandey, V. Ayurveda Series 28. Reprint 2015: Published by Chaukambha Bharati Academy, Shaka Varga. Ver. 13-15. p. 666.
Zaini NA, Anwar F, Abdul Hamid A, Saari N. Kundur [Benincasa hispida
(Thunb.) Cogn.]: A potential source for valuable nutrients and functional foods. Food Res Int 2011;44:2368-76.
Al-Snafi AE. Traditional uses of Iraqi medicinal plants. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018;8:32-96.
Sharma PV. Medhyadi varg. In: Sharma PV, editor. The Dravya Gun-Vijnana Vegetable Drugs. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharti Academy; 2005. p. 14.
Al-Snafi AE. Traditional uses of Iraqi medicinal plants. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018;8:32-96.
Acharya Vagbhata, Astanga Samgraha, English Translation by Prof. K.R. Srikantha Murthy, Chikitsha Sthana. Vol. 2., Ch. 3., Ver. 61-65. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; p. 317.
Nishteswar K, Vidyanath R. Shasrayogam, English Translation. Lehya Prakarana. Ch. 7. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series; 2006. p. 254-5.
Acharya Vagbhata, Astanga Hridayam, Nirmala Hindi Commentary by Dr Brahmanand Tripathi, Chikitsa Sthana. Part. 2., Ch. 3., Ver. 114-117. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; Reprint ed. 2019. p. 601.
Shri Chakrapani Datta, Chakradutta, Hindi Translation by Vaidya Ravidutta Shastri. Ch. 8., Ver. 67-73. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Subharati Prakashan; Reprint 2019. p. 61.
Yogratnakar, by Vaidya Srilakshmipati Shastri, edited by Bhisagratna Hindi Commentary Vidyotni. Reprint edition 2017., Ver. 1-7. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Prakashan; 2015. p. 359.
Sri Gopal Krishna Bhatt, Rasendra Sara Sangraha, Text with English Translation by Dr. Vinaya Kumari Dhannapuneni. Ch. 2., Ver. 15-18. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; Ed. 2015. p. 466.
Srimad Bhisaka Bhushana Pranita Bhavprakasha by Bhisaka Ratna Shri Braham Sankar Mishra Shastri 'Vidyotini' Commentary Chikitsha Prakarana Uttrardha. Ver. 72-74. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan; p. 121.
Shrivrinda Pranitta, Vrinda Madhav and Siddhayoga, Translated by Dr. Premvati Tewari. Ch. 9., Ver. 53-61. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Visvabharati; 2007. p. 150.
Vangasen Samhita, by Pandit Hariprasad Tripathi, Hindi Translation. Ch. 45., Ver. 149-160. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series; 2009. p. 561-2.
Srimad Bhisaka Bhushana Pranita Bhavprakasha by Bhisaka Ratna Shri Braham Sankar Mishra Shastri 'Vidyotini' Commentary Chikitsha Prakarana Uttrardha. Ver. 49-57. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan; 2015. p. 120.
Shrimad Vaidya Sodhal, Gada Nigreha by Dr. Indradev Tripathi, Pratham Prayog Khand. Ch. 5., Ver. 20-21. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; 2016. p. 300.
Sharangadhara, Sarangadhara Samhita, Parshuram Shastri Vidyasagar, Editor. 1st
ed., Ch. 8., Ver. 22-28. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan, Madhyama Khanda; 2013. p. 209.
Yogratnakar, by Vaidya Srilakshmipati Shastri, edited by Bhisagratna Hindi Commentary Vidyotni. Reprint edition 2015., Ver. 1-7. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Prakashan; 2015. p. 358.
Rasayogasagara by Vaidya Pandit Hariprapannaji with Sanskrit and English Introduction. Vol. 1., Ver. 314. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2016. p. 325.
Rasa Tantra Sara and Sidha Prayog Sangraha, Written by Nathusingh. Part. 1., Ver. 14. Ajmer: Published by Krishan Gopal Ayurveda Bhavan; 2017. p. 327.
Vaidya Cintamani, Text with English Translation by Prof. K. Rama Chandra Reddy. Ver. 73-82. Vol. 1. Varanasi Seventh Vilasa: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2013. p. 588.
Harita Samhita by Vaidya Jaimini Pandey 'Nirmala' Hindi Commentary. Tritiya Sthana. Ch. 10., Ver. 55-63. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Vishwabharti; 2016. p. 305.
Shankar Dajishastri Pade, Aryabhishak, Shree Gajanan. Dadar, Mumbai: Book Depot Publisher; 1998. p. 276.
Kaviraj Govind Das Sen, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, 'Siddhiprada' Hindi Commentary of Siddhi Nandan Mishra. Part. 1., Ch. 13., Ver. 95-101. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan; 2017. p. 397.
Shri Vaidhyanath, Ayurveda Sara Sangreh, Hindi Commentary. Ayurveda Bhawan Limited Kolkata: Avaleha Paka Prakarana; 2020. p. 615.
Srimad Bhisaka Bhushana Pranita Bhavprakasha by Bhisaka Ratna Shri Braham Sankar Mishra Shastri 'Vidayotini' Commentary Chikitsha Prakarana Uttrardha. Ver. 58-71. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan; 2020. p. 120-1.
Rasayogasagara by Vaidya Pandit Hariprapannaji with Sanskrit and English Introduction. Vol. 1., Ver. 312. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2016. p. 324.
Rasayogasagara by Vaidya Pandit Hariprapannaji with Sanskrit and English Introduction. Vol. 1., Ver. 313. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2016. p. 325.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part. 1. New Delhi: Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine & Homeopathy; 2003. p. 35.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part. 2., Vol. 1. New Delhi: Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine & Homeopathy; 2011. p. 29-33.
Santosh V, Kumar V, Ranjan R , Dubey VS , Chaturvedi US , Singh AK. et al.
Experimental evaluation of Rasapanchak –
A narrative review.
Acharya Priyavrat Sharma. Dravyaguna Vigyana. Vol. 2., Ch. 1. Varanasi: Published by Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2013. p. 14-7.
Acharya Priyavrat Sharma. Dravyaguna Vigyana. Vol. 2., Ch. 4. Varanasi: Published by Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2013. p. 275-9.
Acharya Priyavrat Sharma. Dravyaguna Vigyana. Vol. 2., Ch. 5. Varanasi: Published by Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2013. p. 331-5.
Acharya Priyavrat Sharma. Dravyaguna Vigyana. Vol. 2., Ch. 5. Varanasi: Published by Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2013. p. 365-8.
Acharya Priyavrat Sharma. Dravyaguna Vigyana. Vol. 2., Ch. 4. Varanasi: Published by Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2013. p. 250-2.
Acharya Priyavrat Sharma. Dravyaguna Vigyana. Vol. 2., Ch. 9. Varanasi: Published by Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2013. p. 719-72.
Acharya Priyavrat Sharma. Dravyaguna Vigyana. Vol. 2., Ch. 5. Varanasi: Published by Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2013. p. 362-5.
Acharya Priyavrat Sharma. Dravyaguna Vigyana. Vol. 2., Ch. 5. Varanasi: Published by Chaukhamba Bharti Academy; 2013. p. 322-4.
Maharishi Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita edited by Kaviraj Ambika Dutta Shastri Part 1, Sutra Sthana. Reprinted edition 2013., Ch. 45., Ver. 132. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Prakashan; 2008. p. 232.
Maharishi Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita edited by Kaviraj Ambika Dutta Shastri Part 1, Sutra Sthana. Reprinted edition 2013., Ch. 45., Ver. 96. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Prakashan; 2008. p. 228.
Acharya Agnivesha, Charaka samhita of Acharya Charaka by Dridhabala, edited by Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji. Sutra Sthana. 2nd
ed., Ch. 27., Ver. 241. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2014. p. 553.
Meenakshi A, Ashwini D, Shardul C. Sharkara – A review with modern and ayurvedic point of view. Int Ayurveda Pub 2016;1(5).
Kale K, Bharati PL, Panda AK, Yadav B, Jameela S, Suryawanshi MN, et al
. Clinical efficacy and safety of kushmandaka rasayana in the management of chronic bronchitis: A prospective open label multicenter study. J Res Ayurvedic Sci 2018;2:225-32.
Deepika Y. Clinical management of Amlapitta with khanda kushmanda Avaleha. WJAHR 2020;4:136-41.
Firke AR, Bobade RB. An exploratory clinical trial to evaluate efficacy of kushmanda (Benincasa hispida
) for weight gain in malnourished children. J Ayu Herb Med 2019;5:87-9.
Sheshrao AS, Sheshrao AS, Gandhi P, Chatraguna L. Evaluation of nutritive value of kushmanda avaleha. Int Ayurvedic Med J 2019;7:724-7.
Chavhan NS, Rathi BJ, Deshmukh DD. Pharmaceutico analytical profile of Kushmanda Avaleha and its modified dosage form as Kushmanda granules. J Indian Syst Med 2020; 8:193-9.
Khushbu C, Roshni S, Anar P, Carol M, Mayuree P. Phytochemical and therapeutic potential of Piper longum
Linn a review. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2011;2:157-61.
Farooqui R, Khan RA, Mustafa K, Ul Haq R. Evaluation of antitussive effect of herbal syrup.
Kaushik D, Rani R, Kaushik P, Sacher D, Yadav J. In vivo
and in vitro
antiasthmatic studies of plant Piper longum
Linn. Int J Pharmacol 2012;8:192-7.
Kumar MH, Prabhu K, Rao MR, Sundaram RL, Shil S, Kumar SA. The GC MS study of one Ayurvedic medicine, Vasakadyaristam. Res J Pharm Technol 2019;12:569-73.
Kumari M, Ashok BK, Ravishankar B, Pandya TN, Acharya R. Anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali (Piper longum
Linn.). Ayu 2012;33:307.
Subramaniam K, Subramanian SK, Bhargav S, Parameswari R, Praveena R, Ravikumar R, et al
. Review on potential antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of Piper longum
. InIOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 2021;1145:012099.
Deepak E, Swati D, Khichariya SD, Dhruw DS, Parhate SM. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of sunthi in pranvaha srotas. Int J Res AYUSH Allied Syst Ayushdhara 2017;4:1056-8.
Patnaik KC, Rajput D. Role of antioxidant herbs and Yoga practices in prevention of infectious diseases with special reference to Covid-19 pandemic. Int J Res Pharm Sci 317-22.
Tasleem F, Azhar I, Ali SN, Perveen S, Mahmood ZA. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Piper nigrum
L. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014;7:S461-8.
Paarakh PM. Coriandrum sativum
Linn. — Review. Pharmacologyonline 2009;3:561-73.
Sengottuvelu S. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum
Linn. Maton) seeds in health. In: Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention. Tamil Nadu: Academic Press; 2011. p. 285-91.
Souissi M, Azelmat J, Chaieb K, Grenier D. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum
) extracts: Potential therapeutic benefits for periodontal infections. Anaerobe 2020;61:102089.
Craciun AV, Chiru D, Marginean O. Essential oils, a possible solution to overcome antimicrobial resistance crisis. Roman Med J 2015;62:280-3.
Bhutada RS. AYUSH ministry's health advisory for immunity boosting with respect to COVID-19: A review. Advanced Journal of AYUSH Research 2020;1:11-9.
Wajpeyi SM. AYUSH ministry's health advisory in covid-19-a critical review. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2020: 201-7.
Vaijath S, Surendrakumar P, Vijay C, Usman MR, Shah FS, Tushar P. Anti-tussive activity of Piper longum
churna. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;1:1023-7.
Vangalapati M, Satya NS, Prakash DS, Avanigadda S. A review on pharmacological activities and clinical effects of cinnamon species. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2012;3:653-63.
Khawas S, Nosáľová G, Majee SK, Ghosh K, Raja W, Sivová V, et al
. In vivo
cough suppressive activity of pectic polysaccharide with arabinogalactan type II side chains of Piper nigrum
fruits and its synergistic effect with piperine. Int J Biol Macromol 2017;99:335-42.
Ganesh P, Kumar RS, Saranraj P. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Pepper (Piper nigrum
L.) against some human pathogens. Cent Eur J Exp Biol 2014;3:36-41.
Rehman H, Zahoor A, Shaikh ZA, Naveed S, Usmanghani K. Polyherbal extract based linkus lozenges for symptomatic relief: Design, development and evaluation. Am J Adv Drug Deliv 2017;5:11-8.
Joshi DR, Shrestha AC, Adhikari N. A review on diversified use of the king of spices: Piper nigrum
(Black Pepper). Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018;9:4089-101.
Chowdhury S, Nishteswarb K. Role of volatile oil of natural source in the cosmetics and health care industries. Pharma Sci Monitor 2013;4(2).
Neumann N, Si HU. Hemp in Tibetan medicine. In: Marijuana Medicine: A World Tour of the Healing and Visionary Powers of Cannabis. Rochester, Vermont: John Baker; 2001. p. 42.
Srinivasan K. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum
) and black cumin (Nigella sativa
) seeds: Traditional uses, chemical constituents, and nutraceutical effects. Food Qual Saf 2018;2:1-6.
Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological activities of Cuminum cyminum
– A review. IOSR J Pharm 2016;6:46-65.
Singh G, Kiran S, Marimuthu P, Isidorov V, Vinogorova V. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and various oleoresins of Elettaria cardamomum
(seeds and pods). J Sci Food Agric 2008;88:280-9.
Srinivasan K. Black pepper (Piper nigrum
) and its bioactive compound, piperine. In: Molecular Targets and Therapeutic Uses of Spices: Modern Uses for Ancient Medicine.USA: National Institute of Health; 2009. p. 25-64.
Pathak Nimish L, Kasture Sanjay B, Bhatt Nayna M, Rathod Jaimik D. Phytopharmacological properties of Coriander sativum
as a potential medicinal tree: An overview. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011;1:20-5.
Bhattacharjee A, Sarkar BR, Kumar Dey B. Evaluation of in-vivo
histamine release inhibitory potential of Piper nigrum
seed extract MOJ Tumor Research 2018;1(6):180-'185.
Kumar S, Kumar T, Kanwar R. An Outlook towards 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pandemic as Per Ayurveda. Alochana Chakra Journal 2020;9(6): 6109-19.
Pearce N, Ait-Khaled N, Beasley R, Mallol J, Keil U, Mitchell E, et al
. Worldwide trends in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: Phase III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Thorax 2007;62:758-66.
Shastri Parasurama., editor. Madhyam Khanda. Sharangadhara Samhita, Dipika Commentary by Adhamalla and Gudarthadipika Commentary by Kashiram. 5th
ed., 1. Vol. 8. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2002. p. 206.
Shastri Parasurama., editor. Purva Khanda. Sharangadhara Samhita, Dipika Commentary by Adhamalla and Gudarthadipika Commentary by Kashiram. 5th
ed., 52-53. Vol. 1. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2002. p. 13.
Acharya Jadavaji Trikamji., editor. Chikitsasthan. Charaka Samhita, Chakarpani Commentary. 5th
ed., 70. Vol. 1. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2001, p. 379.
Pooja B, Sharma G, Kadibagil VR. Critical interpretation on manufacturing process of Avaleha kalpana. IJAPC 2019;10:288-94.
Acharya Yadavaji Trikamji, editor. Chikitsasthan.
Charaka Samhita, Chakarpani Commentary. 5th
ed., 149. Vol. 17. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2001. p. 539.
Acharya Yadavaji Trikamji, editor. Sutrasthana. Charaka Samhita, Chakarpani Commentary. 5th
ed., 42. Vol. 26. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2001. p. 144.
Acharya Yadavaji Trikamji., editor. Sutrasthan. Sushruta Samhita, Nibandha Sangraha and Nyaya Candrika Commentary by Dalhana. 96. Vol. 45. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan; 2008. p. 204.
Johri RK, Zutshi, U. An ayurvedic formulation 'Trikatu' and its constituents. J Ethnopharmacol 1992;37:85-91.
Pole S. Ayurvedic Medicine: The Principles of Traditional Practices. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier; 2006. p. 302-3.
Lee KB, Shin KH, Wan WS. Central nervous depressant and anti-inflammatory activity of piperine. Arch Pharma Res 1984;1:127-32.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]