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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 137-142

Estimation of sodium intake using spot urine samples in urban South Indian set up: A cross sectional study

Departments of Biochemistry, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research Centre, JNMC, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Reshma D Channashetti
Department of Biochemistry, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research Centre, JNMC, Belagavi, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_114_20

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Obesity has been linked with various factors and one of them is the amount of sodium intake by an individual. Spot urine examination is an accepted method of sodium estimation which is accurate, patient compliant and reliable. Hence, the study plans to assess the sodium intake by analyzing spot urinary sodium in normal, overweight, and obese individuals and also to compare and correlate urinary sodium with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 individuals grouped into normal, overweight, and obese categories in an urban set up. The Kawasaki formula was used to estimate urinary sodium excretion per day. Comparison between the BMI, WHR, and sodium intake per day for all the categories were done using ANOVA. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to find the correlation between the sodium intake per day, BMI and WHR. A P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Total sodium intake per day by obese individuals was 316.69 ± 170.86 (mEq/day) with the P = 0.0645 using Kawasaki formula. According to Kruskal–Wallis test, there was no statistical difference between values of sodium intake between normal, overweight, and obese categories (P > 0.05). However, significant positive correlation was noted between BMI and sodium intake (P < 0.05) and that of WHR and sodium intake (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Sodium intake was positively correlated with the indices of obesity (BMI and WHR) and was found to be an independent risk factor for obesity.

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