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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 56-60

Evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and comfort concerning human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome field education understanding among Kanpur Dehat, Indian rural school educators: A questionnaire analysis

1 Department of Public Health, UWA School of Population and Global Health, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Rama Dental College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Pedoontics Private Dental Practitioner at Mehrotra Superspecialty Dental Center, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Student Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar, Gujrat, India

Date of Submission24-Jul-2020
Date of Decision18-Aug-2020
Date of Acceptance02-Sep-2020
Date of Web Publication08-Apr-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rohan Sachdev
117/K-68 Sarvodaya Nagar, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_68_20

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CONTEXT: Countries were left ravaged as the fastest increasing path of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection, hence the epidemic misconceptions surrounding the path of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the populations. According to the latest national AIDS management organization survey on HIV/AIDS, North central India is regarded as low awareness and low prevalence area.
AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and comfort regarding HIV/AIDS among Kanpur Dehat rural school educators.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out on a total of 110 rural school educators of government and private schools.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A pretested, self-structured, close-ended questionnaire was administered that consisted of 30 questions.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The information gathered was incorporated in a foundational way and t-test was applied and P value was determined.
RESULTS: Among 110 school educators, females were more in number (56.36%). Private school educators scored more mean (standard deviation) in terms of knowledge (68 ± 5.83), attitude (50 ± 5.82), and comfort (49 ± 6.60) when compared to government school educators. Government school educators were uncertain about methods of transmitting AIDS. Maximum school educators were unaware of the different myths concerning AIDS.
CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge, attitude, and comfort of rural school educators among the government school teachers were found to be unsatisfactory. Information is an effort to improve the high-risk conduct of every illness and to build an understanding of HIV/AIDS. We will seek to increase awareness among educators of rural schools by holding workshops at regular intervals and enhancing their comprehension.

Keywords: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, attitude, comfort, knowledge, myths, rural educators

How to cite this article:
Sachdev R, Garg K, Singh G, Nigam K, Srivastava A. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and comfort concerning human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome field education understanding among Kanpur Dehat, Indian rural school educators: A questionnaire analysis. BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2021;6:56-60

How to cite this URL:
Sachdev R, Garg K, Singh G, Nigam K, Srivastava A. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and comfort concerning human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome field education understanding among Kanpur Dehat, Indian rural school educators: A questionnaire analysis. BLDE Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jul 2];6:56-60. Available from: https://www.bldeujournalhs.in/text.asp?2021/6/1/56/313364

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a debilitating condition triggered by a retrovirus known as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that tears down the body's immune system, leaving host life-threatening opportunistic diseases, psychiatric abnormalities, and rare malignancies.[1],[2] In India, nearly 2.1 million people were living with HIV in 2013, with a national incidence of 0.3% among adults. It is claimed that India has the third-largest total number of people infected with HIV/AIDS, following South Africa and Nigeria.[3],[4] In the state of Uttar Pradesh, the prevalence of HIV among adults (15–49 years) is 0.12%, and the approximate number of people residing with HIV (adults and children) is 150,000. In the state of Uttar Pradesh, the prevalence of HIV among adults (15–49 years) is 0.12%, and the approximate number of people residing with HIV (adults and children) is 150,000.[5]

Despite India having a huge population with poor rates of literacy contributing to low rates of HIV/AIDS education, the epidemic presents a worrisome threat to public health scenarios. At the same time in the Indian cultural setup, mentioning sex became a taboo.[6],[7] Researches from the past indicate a disparity in awareness of HIV/AIDS preventive approaches, suggesting the need for deeper and interpersonal discussion on such matters. Since there is no treatment for AIDS yet, increasing awareness of young people is the most effective way of avoiding this infection. Moreover, almost one-third of India's population is 18-year-old, schools are the obvious forum for young people to transfer this knowledge forward.[8] School educators can be used to provide education, address misconceptions, and improve the understanding of HIV infection. They provide a vital bridge for effectively and regularly transmitting this knowledge to their societies.[9]

The expertise and understanding of educators can have a significant influence on the society, as teachers are seen as role models in many communities. Educators ensure a safe school atmosphere and guide students in need of care, provide information, and act as mentors and successful instructors.[10] To educate their students, however, the educators must understand the subject, both in a developmentally and culturally appropriate manner, and have a repertoire of useful techniques for effective communication with students. The trust of educators in teaching subjects such as sexual health and misconceptions regarding HIV infection depends on their behaviors, awareness, and practice.[11],[12],[13] Moreover, among highly educated professionals, the high prevalence of misunderstanding regarding HIV transmission can interfere with the true awareness of this condition.[14] The attitude of the public toward the infection and the sick is also of considerable consideration alongside information. Apart from the fact that educators often lack sufficient knowledge of the disease, there is also a shortage of literature on the attitudes of teachers toward infected people.[15],[16],[17] Furthermore, even after having adequate information, teachers often feel awkward discussing sensitive topics such as sexuality, usage of contraceptives, and sexual activity with students.[18],[19],[20]

The present study was conducted in this context to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and comfort concerning HIV/AIDS among Kanpur Dehat rural school educators.

  Subjects and Methods Top

Study design and study population

The present study is a cross-sectional, descriptive survey.

The study population comprised a total of 110 educators from 10 government schools and 7 private schools. Of the total number of age group participants 25–45 years, 48 males and 62 females were volunteered from government and private schools to participate in the study.

The measures were selected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[21]A pretested, self-administered, close-ended questionnaire composed of 30 HIV/AIDS-related questions was used to assess the rural school educators' knowledge, attitudes, and comfort.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

The inclusion criteria considered all the school educators who were able to participate in the study. The exclusion criteria comprised educators who were unavailable on the study's predecided days, and educators who did not consent to the evaluation.

Pilot study and pretesting of the questionnaire

To evaluate the viability and language of the research survey, a pilot study was performed among 20 educators (excluding from the total sample). Ten questions were asked for each knowledge, attitude, and comfort to assess, and evaluation was done by two academicians to check the reaction out of 100 (10 each) and then gain the access to Cronbach's alpha (α) value. Cronbach's alpha value came as knowledge 0.78, attitude 0.69, and comfort 0.74, which signifies an acceptable internal reliability of the questionnaire. In addition, there were no changes required in the questionnaire as a result of the pretest.

Ethical approval and informed consent

The study was conducted between February and March 2020. The Institutional Review Board approved the study protocol, and ethical approval was obtained. Most of those educators involved obtained a written informed consent form.

Data collection and analysis

The questionnaire was conducted in Hindi and English languages and was provided by a single investigator. The school educators were informed about the concept of study and were requested to approach the investigator present there, immediately if there had been any doubts about any of the questions in the questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of the following three parts:

  • Part 1: Sociodemographic details including age/sex and teaching experience
  • Part 2: Questions (10) to assess the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS
  • Part 3: Questions (10-10) to assess the attitudes and comfort regarding HIV/AIDS.

The data were collected, compiled, arranged in a systematic manner, and analyzed using the SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The mean (standard deviation [SD]) values were analyzed, t-test was applied, and P value was calculated.

  Results Top

A total of 125 educators from the 10 government and 7 private schools were invited to the study, but only 110 educators responded and gave their consent to the study. Thus, the response rate was 88%. The mean age (±SD) of government school educators (42 ± 8.01 years) was found significantly higher than that of private school educators (33.3 ± 6.97 years) with significant P < 0.0067. The government school educators had more teaching experience (14.7 ± 7.24 years) than did the private school educators (9.23 ± 6.95 years) with P < 0.005. Demographic data showed that the majority of the respondents were female (56.36%) when compared to males (46.63%) [Table 1].
Table 1: Characteristic of government and private school educators who volunteered for the study

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In this study, variables relevant to knowledge, attitude, and comfort have been established to a higher level among private school educators compared to government schools. A private school educator shows good knowledge (68 ± 5.83), more positive attitude (50.8 ± 5.82), and greater comfort level (49.18 ± 6.6) in discussing HIV/AIDS like sensitive topics with significant P value. Cronbach's alpha value came as 0.84 for knowledge, 0.73 for attitude, and .78 f for comfort level [Table 2].
Table 2: Differences between government and private school educators in terms of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge, attitude, and comfort

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  Discussion Top

Educators have great potential in society to influence the health knowledge and attitudes of students and their parents.[20] Uttar Pradesh continues to be at the low prevalence level of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and school educators can play a crucial role in reducing the spread of infection through disseminating awareness to students. Our study highlights the gaps that are important to address in the education and training of educators. Chhabra et al. in 2007 recommended that intensive training of communication skills educators in resolving culturally responsive HIV-related problems is necessary to eliminate deep-rooted social and cultural constraints.[20]

In the present study, 56.36% females participants were present similar to a study done by Goyal BK., (69.6% females) and study performed by Ghosh et al., female participants formed the majority (53.8%).[2],[9] All of the government and private school educators who actively participated in the present study had a graduate degree. Private school teachers were significantly younger and had fewer classroom experiences than their government school colleagues as stated by Ghosh et al., where the mean age was 31.7 ± 4.40 of private school educators.[9] The difference in age is not unexpected because private schools prefer to employ freshly educated teachers and do not provide traditional salary-scale permanent jobs, whereas community schools are operated by the state and provide better pay and lifelong retirement benefits. Hence, there is rapid turnover in private schools, with younger educators gaining their first job experiences in them with less duration as compared to government school educators, which was found in accordance to Ghosh et al. study with mean 5.98 ± 3.37 years of experience among private school, while public school educators were 12.20 ± 5.18 years.[9]

Goyal et al., Srivastava et al., and Elzubier et al. in their study reported that school educators had adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS.[2],[22],[23] The disparity between government and private school educators in terms of knowledge about HIV/AIDS, disposition toward people living with HIV/AIDS, and confidence level in communicating HIV/AIDS problems was significant: private school educators scored higher on all three parameters.[23]

Educators training in Uttar Pradesh, rural zones happens in customary study hall settings. The educators' training mainly emphasizes enhancing cognitive development. The concepts of public health, for example, are not part of the academic curriculum. Experiential learning that utilizes specific scenarios reenactments will help educators spread critical disease data. This research also includes the demand that counseling programs be held together in schools to focus on educators much like students.

  Conclusions Top

As more than one third of the population in India are young adults and adolescents,so youth maturity and awareness is the gateway to prevention measures and a healthy world. Youth maturity and awareness is the gateway to prevention measures and a healthy world. Education programs are used as a simple and acceptable forum for providing interest, awareness, and details for young adults and teenagers. Hence, health subjects such as HIV/AIDS can be addressed in schools to have a profound impact on the development of individuals. Educators are the best means of not only delivering academic information but also having an active role in both student growth and increasing consciousness about cause and avoidance of health-related topics. Nonetheless, a lack of skills among educators to transmit confidential information to students result in program failure in achieving goals. Therefore, government and private schools are mandated to train their educators in the national HIV/AIDS education program, and in exchange, the educators are to communicate this knowledge and understanding to young adults and youth in the classrooms.


The authors would like to acknowledge all school educators and school authorities for all cooperation during the study period.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

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UNAIDS. AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2013. Available from: http://data.unaids.org/pub/EPISlides/2013/2013_epiupdate_enpdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 19].  Back to cited text no. 4
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UNICEF. Country Report – India 2004. Available from: Available from: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 19].  Back to cited text no. 8
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UNDP. The socioeconomic impact of HIV and AIDS in India. 2006. www.undp.org. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 22].  Back to cited text no. 12
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  [Table 1], [Table 2]


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